A Brief History of time
India's history and culture is ancient and dynamic, spanning back to the beginning of human civilization. It began with a mysterious culture along the Indus River and in farming communities in the southern lands of India. The history goes back to 3,200 BC when Hinduism was first founded. Today Buddhism, Jainism, Sikhism, Christianity and Islam all co-exist within the country. The Indian culture reflects the collective practices of the people settled in India. Modern India presents a picture of unity in diversity with people of different faith and beliefs living together under one roof in peace and harmony.
The name India is derived from Indus which is derived from the Old Persian word Hindu. A second name Hindustan (Land of Hindus) has been used since the twelfth century. The name Bharat is derived from the mythical king Bharat who is said to have ruled over the landmass known as Bharatvarsha. In general, the three names- India, Hindustan and Bharat are used interchangeably.
- Vedic Civilization - 6th millenium B.C.
- Rise of Jainism and Buddhism
- Mauryan Period - 322 -188 B.C
- Golden Age of Indian Arts & Science
- Muslim Invasions
- The Mughal Empire - 1526 to 1600
- The Portugese Invasion
- The British Empire - 1600 to 1900
- India's Freedom Struggle
- Independent India - 15th August,1947
- Republic India - 26th january,1950
Interesting facts, Inventions, Achievements...
- The Number System was invented in India
- The digit zero was invented by Aryabhatta
- Chess was invented in India
- Indus Valley Civilization - one of the worlds greatest urban civilizations
- World's first University in Takshilla - 700 B.C.
- Ayurveda - the ancient independent scientific system of medicine known to humans
- Yoga - the process of elevating oneself by calming the mind
- Sushruta - the father of Surgery and author of the book Sushruta Samhita which describes over 120 surgical instruments, 300 surgical procedures and classifies human surgery in 8 categories.
- Varanasi - the oldest living, continually inhabited city in the world
- Mahabharata - the longest epic in world literature with 10,000 two-line stanzas
- India has the largest postal network in the world
- Indian Railways, the biggest employer in the world
- India produces the worlds largest number of motion pictures in the world
India is an immensely rich cultural treasure trove in the world. It is a land with a rich, varied and fascinating history. Also known as a land of festivals, it has many religions and communities. There is great diversity in our manners, habits, tastes and customs. We speak different languages and yet we are all Indians. The rich and varied heritage happens to be one of the many sources of pride of the nation
The National Emblem is an adaptation from the Sarnath Lion Capital of Emperor Ashoka. It is the symbolic of India's commitment to world peace and goodwill. The four lions(one hidden from view ) – symbolizing power, courage and confidence - rest on a circular abacus. The abacus is girded by four smaller animals- Guardians of the four directions: The Lion of the North, The Elephant of the East, The Horse of the South and The Bull of the West. The abacus rests on a lotus in full bloom, exemplifying the fountainhead of life. The motto ' Satyameva Jayate ' inscribed below the emblem in Devanagari script means 'truth alone triumphs'
The Indian National Flag is a horizontal tricolorflag where the color saffron stands for courage, sacrifice and the spirit of renunciation, white for purity and truth and green for faith and fertility. In the center of the white band, there is a wheel in navy blue to indicate the Dharma Chakra, the wheel of law in the Sarnath Lion Capital. Its diameter approximates the width of the white band and it has 24 spokes. The navy blue wheel denotes the continuity of the nations progress. The ratio of the width to the length of the Flag shall ordinarily be 2 :3.
The Indian peacock, the national bird of India, is a colorful, swan-sized bird, with a fan-shaped crest of feathers, a white patch under the eye and a long, slender neck. It is a large and majestic bird with long and beautiful tail. The tail spreads out for over a meter. The male of the species is more colorful than the female.
The Indian Peacock has beautiful iridescent blue-green plumage. It is a gorgeous sight to see the bird dancing , fanning out the tail and preening its feathers, They feed on grains, vegetables, snakes, and insects. Poaching of peacock is strictly prohibited. It is fully protected under the Indian Wildlife (Protection) Act, 1972.
The Royal Bengal Tiger is the National Animal of India. Its fur is orange-brown with black stripes and the animal is a perfect combination of grace, strength, agility and enormous power. Tigers normally live in evergreen forests and they hunt almost all wild animals even the big elephants. The lifespan of a tiger is around 20 years.
The National Flower of India is the beautiful lotus. The Lotus or water lily is an aquatic plant of Nymphaea with broad floating leaves and bright fragrant flowers that grow only in shallow waters. The big attractive flowers have many petals overlapping in a symmetrical pattern. Lotus symbolizes purity, beauty, majesty, grace, fertility, wealth, richness, knowledge and serenity. They are found in white and pink colors in general and they grow in shallow and murky waters.
The Indian National Tree is the fig (Banyan) tree, which starts its life on another plant, subsisting on sun, air, and rain, and gradually taking over from its host. Once established, it sends down auxiliary roots from its branches, which become auxiliary trunks sending out new branches sending down more auxiliary roots. Spreading in this way, a single banyan tree can eventually cover several acres of ground. It can provide a shaded place for a village meeting or for merchants to show their wares. Because of this characteristic and its longevity, this tree is considered immortal and is an integral part of the myths and legends of India.
The fruit Mango is regarded as the National Fruit of India. It is one of the most widely cultivated fruits of the tropical world. This juicy, delicious fruit is a rich source of Vitamins A, C and D. In India there are hundreds of varieties of mangoes, in different sizes, shapes and colors etc.
The Mango tree plays a sacred role in India; it is a symbol of love and some believe that the Mango tree can grant wishes.
Hockey is the National Game of India. The modern game hockey grew from the game played in English public schools in the early 19th century. The game had been taken to India by British servicemen and the first club was formed in Calcutta in 1885.The Beighton Cup and the Aga Khan tournament had commenced within ten years.
Entering the Olympic Games in 1928, India won all five of its games without conceding a goal and went on to win from 1932 until 1956 and then in 1964 and 1980.
National Symbols of India